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R0:8c6cf8db215cbc24a8aec1e0786e1356-AI and the Future of Skills, Volume 1

AI and the Future of Skills, Volume 1

The OECD launched the Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Skills project to develop a programme that could assess the capabilities of AI and robotics and their impact on education and work. This report represents the first step in developing the methodological approach of the project.

R0:f70f5b9bc071317c0c1c9b1d7f122949-Highly accurate protein structure prediction with AlphaFold

Highly accurate protein structure prediction with AlphaFold

Underpinning the latest version of AlphaFold is a novel machine learning approach that incorporates physical and biological knowledge about protein structure, leveraging multi-sequence alignments, into the design of the deep learning algorithm.

R0:94ecd1a3b2168ef2dbb43222545d08bc-YOLOX: Exceeding YOLO Series in 2021

YOLOX: Exceeding YOLO Series in 2021

We switch the YOLO detector to an anchor-free manner and conduct other advanced detection techniques, i.e., a decoupled head and the leading label assignment strategy SimOTA to achieve state-of-the-art results across a large scale range of models: For YOLO-Nano with only 0.91M parameters and 1.08G FLOPs, we get 25.3% AP on COCO, surpassing NanoDet by 1.8% AP; for YOLOv3, one of the most widely used detectors in industry, we boost it to 47.3% AP on COCO, outperforming the current best practice by 3.0% AP; for YOLOX-L with roughly the same amount of parameters as YOLOv4-CSP, YOLOv5-L, we achieve 50.0% AP on COCO at a speed of 68.9 FPS on Tesla V100, exceeding YOLOv5-L by 1.8% AP.

R0:1bd6c89454b8a29952356211c7075d12-YOLOP: You Only Look Once for Panoptic Driving Perception

YOLOP: You Only Look Once for Panoptic Driving Perception

A panoptic driving perception system is an essential part of autonomous driving. A high-precision and real-time perception system can assist the vehicle in making the reasonable decision while driving. We present a panoptic driving perception network (YOLOP) to perform traffic object detection, drivable area segmentation and lane detection simultaneously. It is composed of one encoder for feature extraction and three decoders to handle the specific tasks. Our model performs extremely well on the challenging BDD100K dataset, achieving state-of-the-art on all three tasks in terms of accuracy and speed. Besides, we verify the effectiveness of our multi-task learning model for joint training via ablative studies.

R0:5ad410ba3fa0191312506cf94754bfd9-Addressing Ethical Dilemmas in AI: Listening to Engineers

Addressing Ethical Dilemmas in AI: Listening to Engineers

Documentation is key – design decisions in AI development must be documented in detail, potentially taking inspiration from the field of risk management. There is a need to develop a framework for large-scale testing of AI effects, beginning with public tests of AI systems, and moving towards real-time validation and monitoring. Governance frameworks for decisions in AI development need to be clarified, including the questions of post-market surveillance of product or system performance. Certification of AI ethics expertise would be helpful to support professionalism in AI development teams. Distributed responsibility should be a goal, resulting in a clear definition of roles and responsibilities as well as clear incentive structures for taking in to account broader ethical concerns in the development of AI systems.