Ethics-based auditing of automated decision-making systems: intervention points and policy implications
Organisations increasingly use automated decision-making systems (ADMS) to inform decisions that affect humans and their environment. While the use of ADMS can improve the accuracy and efficiency of decision-making processes, it is also coupled with ethical challenges. Unfortunately, the governance mechanisms currently used to oversee human decision-making often fail when applied to ADMS.
Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have so far been the de-facto model for visual data. Recent work has shown that (Vision) Transformer models (ViT) can achieve comparable or even superior performance on image classification tasks. This raises a central question: how are Vision Transformers solving these tasks? Are they acting like convolutional networks, or learning entirely different visual representations? Analyzing the internal representation structure of ViTs and CNNs on image classification benchmarks, we find striking differences between the two architectures, such as ViT having more uniform representations across all layers. We explore how these differences arise, finding crucial roles played by self-attention, which enables early aggregation of global information, and ViT residual connections, which strongly propagate features from lower to higher layers.
We analyze the math fundamentals behind DP and demonstrate the power of it by applying it on two real-world text classification tasks. Furthermore, we compare DP with pointillistic active and semi-supervised learning techniques traditionally applied in data-sparse settings.
Underpinning the latest version of AlphaFold is a novel machine learning approach that incorporates physical and biological knowledge about protein structure, leveraging multi-sequence alignments, into the design of the deep learning algorithm.
Autonomous parking technology is a key concept within autonomous driving research. This paper will propose an imaginative autonomous parking algorithm to solve issues concerned with parking.
This document gives a concise outline of some of the common mistakes that occur when using machine learning techniques, and what can be done to avoid them. It is intended primarily as a guide for research students, and focuses on issues that are of particular concern within academic research, such as the need to do rigorous comparisons and reach valid conclusions. It covers five stages of the machine learning process: what to do before model building, how to reliably build models, how to robustly evaluate models, how to compare models fairly, and how to report results
We switch the YOLO detector to an anchor-free manner and conduct other advanced detection techniques, i.e., a decoupled head and the leading label assignment strategy SimOTA to achieve state-of-the-art results across a large scale range of models: For YOLO-Nano with only 0.91M parameters and 1.08G FLOPs, we get 25.3% AP on COCO, surpassing NanoDet by 1.8% AP; for YOLOv3, one of the most widely used detectors in industry, we boost it to 47.3% AP on COCO, outperforming the current best practice by 3.0% AP; for YOLOX-L with roughly the same amount of parameters as YOLOv4-CSP, YOLOv5-L, we achieve 50.0% AP on COCO at a speed of 68.9 FPS on Tesla V100, exceeding YOLOv5-L by 1.8% AP.
Framework based on parameterized images on ResNet to identify intrusions in smartwatches or other related devices
The continuous appearance and improvement of mobile devices in the form of smartwatches, smartphones and other similar devices has led to a growing and unfair interest in putting their users under the magnifying glass and control of applications.
A panoptic driving perception system is an essential part of autonomous driving. A high-precision and real-time perception system can assist the vehicle in making the reasonable decision while driving. We present a panoptic driving perception network (YOLOP) to perform traffic object detection, drivable area segmentation and lane detection simultaneously. It is composed of one encoder for feature extraction and three decoders to handle the specific tasks. Our model performs extremely well on the challenging BDD100K dataset, achieving state-of-the-art on all three tasks in terms of accuracy and speed. Besides, we verify the effectiveness of our multi-task learning model for joint training via ablative studies.
‘Framework’ basado en imágenes parametrizadas sobre ResNet para identificar intrusiones en ‘smartwatches’ u otros dispositivos afines
La continua aparición y mejora de dispositivos móviles en forma de ‘smartwatches’, ‘smartphones’ y otros dispositivos similares ha propicio un creciente y desleal interés en poner bajo la lupa y el control de los aplicativos a sus usuarios. De forma ofuscada por los fabricantes.
Los datos como eje principal en el “Estado del arte de la ciencia de datos en el idioma español y su aplicación en el campo de la Inteligencia Artificial”
Los resultados de este estudio son una evidencia del sesgo cultural que existe entre la lengua inglesa y la española en la ciencia de datos. De los 23.771 conjuntos de datos que se encontraron con fecha de consulta 12/04/2021, tan solo 10 se encontraban en castellano
The Commission is proposing the first ever legal framework on AI, which addresses the risks of AI and positions Europe to play a leading role globally.
Topological Data Analysis (TDA) is an emergent field that aims to discover topological information hidden in a dataset. TDA tools have been commonly used to create filters and topological descriptors to improve Machine Learning (ML) methods. This paper proposes an algorithm that applies TDA directly to multi-class classification problems, even imbalanced datasets, without any further ML stage
S++: A Fast and Deployable Secure-Computation Framework for Privacy-Preserving Neural Network Training
We introduce S++, a simple, robust, and deployable framework for training a neural network (NN) using private data from multiple sources, using secret-shared secure function evaluation. In short, consider a virtual third party to whom every data-holder sends their inputs, and which computes the neural network: in our case, this virtual third party is actually a set of servers which individually learn nothing, even with a malicious (but non-colluding) adversary.
Steganography is the science of hiding a secret message within an ordinary public message. Over the years, steganography has been used to encode a lower resolution image into a higher resolution image by simple methods like LSB manipulation. We aim to utilize deep neural networks for the encoding and decoding of multiple secret images inside a single cover image of the same resolution.
Documentation is key – design decisions in AI development must be documented in detail, potentially taking inspiration from the field of risk management. There is a need to develop a framework for large-scale testing of AI effects, beginning with public tests of AI systems, and moving towards real-time validation and monitoring. Governance frameworks for decisions in AI development need to be clarified, including the questions of post-market surveillance of product or system performance. Certification of AI ethics expertise would be helpful to support professionalism in AI development teams. Distributed responsibility should be a goal, resulting in a clear definition of roles and responsibilities as well as clear incentive structures for taking in to account broader ethical concerns in the development of AI systems.
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