Malicious software (malware) causes much harm to our devices and life. We are eager to understand the malware behavior and the threat it made. Most of the record files of malware are variable length and text-based files with time stamps, such as event log data and dynamic analysis profiles. Using the time stamps, we can sort such data into sequence-based data for the following analysis. However, dealing with the text-based sequences with variable lengths is difficult. In addition, unlike natural language text data, most sequential data in information security have specific properties and structure, such as loop, repeated call, noise, etc. To deeply analyze the API call sequences with their structure, we use graphs to represent the sequences, which can further investigate the information and structure, such as the Markov model. Therefore, we design and implement an Attention Aware Graph Neural Network (AWGCN) to analyze the API call sequences. Through AWGCN, we can obtain the sequence embeddings to analyze the behavior of the malware. Moreover, the classification experiment result shows that AWGCN outperforms other classifiers in the call-like datasets, and the embedding can further improve the classic model’s performance.
In this presentation, the current issues to make federated learning flawlessly useful in the real world will be briefly overviewed. They are related to data/system heterogeneity, client management, traceability, and security. Also, we introduce the modularized federated learning framework, we currently develop, to experiment various techniques and protocols to find solutions for aforementioned issues. The framework will be open to public after development completes.
In this survey, we connect several lines of work from the pre-neural and neural era, by showing how hybrid approaches of words and characters as well as subword-based approaches based on learned segmentation have been proposed and evaluated. We conclude that there is and likely will never be a silver bullet singular solution for all applications and that thinking seriously about tokenization remains important for many applications
The Python scientific visualisation landscape is huge. It is composed of a myriad of tools, ranging from the most versatile and widely used down to the more specialised and confidential. Some of these tools are community based while others are developed by companies. Some are made specifically for the web, others are for the desktop only, some deal with 3D and large data, while others target flawless 2D rendering.
Organisations increasingly use automated decision-making systems (ADMS) to inform decisions that affect humans and their environment. While the use of ADMS can improve the accuracy and efficiency of decision-making processes, it is also coupled with ethical challenges. Unfortunately, the governance mechanisms currently used to oversee human decision-making often fail when applied to ADMS.
Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have so far been the de-facto model for visual data. Recent work has shown that (Vision) Transformer models (ViT) can achieve comparable or even superior performance on image classification tasks. This raises a central question: how are Vision Transformers solving these tasks? Are they acting like convolutional networks, or learning entirely different visual representations? Analyzing the internal representation structure of ViTs and CNNs on image classification benchmarks, we find striking differences between the two architectures, such as ViT having more uniform representations across all layers. We explore how these differences arise, finding crucial roles played by self-attention, which enables early aggregation of global information, and ViT residual connections, which strongly propagate features from lower to higher layers.