Creative Commons

R0:62a6aa3b4882ad9b194a4ae5c97b4d58-Ethics-based auditing of automated decision-making systems: intervention points and policy implications

Ethics-based auditing of automated decision-making systems: intervention points and policy implications

Organisations increasingly use automated decision-making systems (ADMS) to inform decisions that affect humans and their environment. While the use of ADMS can improve the accuracy and efficiency of decision-making processes, it is also coupled with ethical challenges. Unfortunately, the governance mechanisms currently used to oversee human decision-making often fail when applied to ADMS.

R0:a56672bf43097f7a50286448af70703b-Isaac Gym: High Performance GPU-Based Physics Simulation For Robot Learning

Isaac Gym: High Performance GPU-Based Physics Simulation For Robot Learning

Isaac Gym offers a high performance learning platform to train policies for wide variety of robotics tasks directly on GPU. Both physics simulation and the neural network policy training reside on GPU and communicate by directly passing data from physics buffers to PyTorch tensors without ever going through any CPU bottlenecks. This leads to blazing fast training times for complex robotics tasks on a single GPU with 2-3 orders of magnitude improvements compared to conventional RL training that uses a CPU based simulator and GPU for neural networks.

R0:a8fc240769ba4448b373719f7fbe640d-Do Vision Transformers See Like Convolutional Neural Networks?

Do Vision Transformers See Like Convolutional Neural Networks?

Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have so far been the de-facto model for visual data. Recent work has shown that (Vision) Transformer models (ViT) can achieve comparable or even superior performance on image classification tasks. This raises a central question: how are Vision Transformers solving these tasks? Are they acting like convolutional networks, or learning entirely different visual representations? Analyzing the internal representation structure of ViTs and CNNs on image classification benchmarks, we find striking differences between the two architectures, such as ViT having more uniform representations across all layers. We explore how these differences arise, finding crucial roles played by self-attention, which enables early aggregation of global information, and ViT residual connections, which strongly propagate features from lower to higher layers.

R0:f70f5b9bc071317c0c1c9b1d7f122949-Highly accurate protein structure prediction with AlphaFold

Highly accurate protein structure prediction with AlphaFold

Underpinning the latest version of AlphaFold is a novel machine learning approach that incorporates physical and biological knowledge about protein structure, leveraging multi-sequence alignments, into the design of the deep learning algorithm.

R0:e3d9ea294a21c145042e5f31369de739-CARLA: A Python Library to Benchmark Algorithmic Recourse and Counterfactual Explanation Algorithms

CARLA: A Python Library to Benchmark Algorithmic Recourse and Counterfactual Explanation Algorithms

CARLA (Counterfactual And Recourse LibrAry), a python library for benchmarking counterfactual explanation methods across both different data sets and different machine learning models. In summary, our work provides the following contributions: (i) an extensive benchmark of 11 popular counterfactual explanation methods, (ii) a benchmarking framework for research on future counterfactual explanation methods, and (iii) a standardized set of integrated evaluation measures and data sets for transparent and extensive comparisons of these methods. We have open-sourced CARLA and our experimental results on Github, making them available as competitive baselines. We welcome contributions from other research groups and practitioners.

R0:5e6fade87218b43e4b8d96158080cc85-A Farewell to the Bias-Variance Tradeoff? An Overview of the Theory of Overparameterized Machine Learning

A Farewell to the Bias-Variance Tradeoff? An Overview of the Theory of Overparameterized Machine Learning

This paper provides a succinct overview of this emerging theory of overparameterized ML (henceforth abbreviated as TOPML) that explains these recent findings through a statistical signal processing perspective. We emphasize the unique aspects that define the TOPML research area as a subfield of modern ML theory and outline interesting open questions that remain.

R0:97532435b0393f0a6ae72973cc68382e-How to avoid machine learning pitfalls: a guide for academic researchers

How to avoid machine learning pitfalls: a guide for academic researchers

This document gives a concise outline of some of the common mistakes that occur when using machine learning techniques, and what can be done to avoid them. It is intended primarily as a guide for research students, and focuses on issues that are of particular concern within academic research, such as the need to do rigorous comparisons and reach valid conclusions. It covers five stages of the machine learning process: what to do before model building, how to reliably build models, how to robustly evaluate models, how to compare models fairly, and how to report results

R0:94ecd1a3b2168ef2dbb43222545d08bc-YOLOX: Exceeding YOLO Series in 2021

YOLOX: Exceeding YOLO Series in 2021

We switch the YOLO detector to an anchor-free manner and conduct other advanced detection techniques, i.e., a decoupled head and the leading label assignment strategy SimOTA to achieve state-of-the-art results across a large scale range of models: For YOLO-Nano with only 0.91M parameters and 1.08G FLOPs, we get 25.3% AP on COCO, surpassing NanoDet by 1.8% AP; for YOLOv3, one of the most widely used detectors in industry, we boost it to 47.3% AP on COCO, outperforming the current best practice by 3.0% AP; for YOLOX-L with roughly the same amount of parameters as YOLOv4-CSP, YOLOv5-L, we achieve 50.0% AP on COCO at a speed of 68.9 FPS on Tesla V100, exceeding YOLOv5-L by 1.8% AP.